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June 16, 2019
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Mondim de Basto

GF Sra. da Graça

Mondim de Basto is a Portuguese village belonging to the District of Vila Real, the North region, the NUTS III sub-region of Ave and the former province of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, with 3 273 inhabitants (2011).

It is the seat of a municipality with 172,08 km ² of area and 7 493 inhabitants (2011), subdivided into 6 parishes (Atei, Bilhó, Campanhó and Paradanca, Ermelo and Pardelhas, São Cristovão de Mondim de Basto, Vilar de Ferreiros). The municipality is limited to the northeast by Ribeira de Pena, to the southeast by Vila Real, to the southwest by Amarante, to the west by Celorico de Basto and to the northwest by Cabeceiras de Basto.

Mondim de Basto lies in a fertile plain on the left bank of the Tâmega river and at the foot of the great green pyramid of Monte Farinha, crowned by the hermitage of Senhora da Graça.


History

There are those who say that the Greeks and the Assyrians have already passed through Mondim, but nothing can guarantee it. More certain are the times castrejos, in that these hills around Mondim were fertile in population. It is in the eminences of the castes that one has to look for the origins of the settlement of this land. There, three hundred meters from the Campos cruise, the Castro Castro's fortress rises, which could also only be a kind of watchtower linked to the defensive system of the Clowns' fortress, the political and military center of this region.

In the second century BC, the Roman legions under the command of the consul Décio Júnio Bruto invaded and conquered all these lands. It is known that there was heroic resistance on the part of the mountain tribes. At the top of Senhora da Graca may have existed the famous city of Cinínia, where it pontificated the bellicose tribe of the Tamecanos. All of them had to comply with the Roman imposition of coming to settle the low parts. It began a period that would last for four centuries. It was the time of Romanization. The fertile lands of this parish were soon to show all their productivity. The first forms of civil and administrative organization had begun. Roads were built, which left vestiges in Pedravedra, and bridges like that of Vilar de Viando, near the village. Minerals were explored and the art of working the tile and brick was taught. Carrazedo's brick industry was born.

Around the middle of the seventeenth century we will find D. António Luís de Meneses, 1st Marquis of Marialva, as the grantee of this village of Mondim. He was awarded that title by D. João IV, after being one of the first to acclaim him on December 1, 1640. He then rendered relevant services to the country during the wars of the Restoration. By the beginning of the eighteenth century, the Chamber of Mondim, together with those of Atei, Cerva and Ermelo presented a creation of a Judge from the outside in these four municipalities. This creation was possible, according to the exposition of those chambers to the Marquis of Marialva, because the territory was rich and had sufficient population to support a magistrate. The town of Mondim was chosen to host the seat, as it is the best and largest settlement, where there were good buildings, shops and a fair every month. At that time Mondim had already become the empire of tanneries, supplying the whole country with leather and footwear. In 1758, in his original memory, the parish priest of the parish of St. Christopher claims to have the title of vicar with an annual income of 350 milreis. Mondim de Basto has a remarkable gallery of illustrious figures: Friar António de S. Bernardo Queirós; Frei José de S. Bernardo Mondim Borges de Azevedo Mourão; Abbot José Joaquim da Costa Leite; António da Costa Cardoso; and many more who could speak, such as Dr. António Borges de Castro, an obligatory reference in the history of the culture of this century. Born on April 23, 1904 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, he came to Portugal at the age of three and settled in the birthplace of his parents - Mondim de Basto - where he remained until his death on July 17 in 1994. He completed primary education in this village, secondary education in Guimarães and Oporto, graduating in Law from the University of Coimbra in 1927. He practiced law for many years and was obliged to abandon his professional activity for health reasons.
Heritage

The Sanctuary of Nossa Senhora da Graça located in Mount Farinha.
The mother church, totally modified, presents / displays of the primitive moth a lateral portal gothic. The body of the ship is covered by a coffered ceiling (in all 75 frames). The main altar frames a sumptuous eighteenth-century gilded altarpiece. Some pieces of silver, a censer and a naveta, from Porto workshops, value all of their implements.

The Chapel of the Lord is a small and beautiful granite temple, with a Romanesque structure, with Baroque decoration. The wooden ceiling is cut and painted. The frames of the boxes are of great relief. Among the images conserves one of century XVI.

Casa do Eiró, an emblazoned 18th-century building, stands out from the village house and follows the common type of regional residences of the time.

Ilustrious figures

Mondim de Basto has a remarkable gallery of illustrious figures: Friar António de S. Bernardo Queirós; Frei José de S. Bernardo Mondim Borges de Azevedo Mourão; Abbot José Joaquim da Costa Leite; António da Costa Cardoso; António Borges de Castro; António Júlio Antunes de Lemos; Alfredo Alvares de Carvalho.

António Borges de Castro is an obligatory reference in the history of the mondinense culture of the twentieth century. Born on April 23, 1904 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, he came to Portugal at the age of three and settled in the birthplace of his parents - Mondim de Basto - where he remained until his death on July 17 in 1994. He completed primary education in this village, secondary education in Guimarães and Oporto, graduating in Law from the University of Coimbra in 1927. He practiced law for many years and was obliged to abandon his professional activity for health reasons.

Soon he began to write, collaborating for about 50 years with the newspapers A Voz, Século, Diário Popular, Diário Ilustrado, Comércio do Porto, as well as several regional publications. In Brazil, where he frequently traveled, he wrote for the Globo newspaper and reorganized, from the outset and at the invitation of official entities, the Library of the Portuguese Literary Lyceum in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

To his Mondim de Basto, whom he loved and knew as no one, bequeathed in a testament of eternity, pages and pages loaded with beauty and love. One day, Borges de Castro whispered to his friend Joaquim de Carvalho: "Sometimes I fall asleep and I wake up with a love-affection that I consecrate to my land." That is why he left books and more books, study, collection, investigation of its land, its uses and customs, portraying with the greatest fidelity its Region. Of the works published, we point out: "Our Lady of Grace - Historical-Legal Monograph"; "Tourist Guide of the Mount of Our Lady of Grace and Fisgas of Ermelo"; "Script of Mondim de Basto"; "Popular Songbook of Mondim de Basto". In addition to other published titles, he also left some works ready for publication, one of which will see the light of day very soon: "Monograph of Mondim de Basto".

This magnificent monograph, which is already in the pre-printing phase, defines the man whom someone called: "A true historical-cultural repository of Mondim de Basto". Antonio Borges de Castro, in the Introduction of his dream: "I did research in all the local archives and in the best public libraries, I collected from oral tradition precious ethnographic and historical elements among the most influential good men that today (1990) they would have been 150 years old, saying that their parents and grandparents counted the same, going back almost three centuries of history of the facts and most important things of this county; hence I am told that I am his living history. " And this is how the man who sought to follow the teachings of the Abbot of Baçal and José Leite de Vasconcelos, leads us on a fantastic journey through this county, making him known in all its aspects from the natural beauties to its geography, from its history to rich ethnography. And here he did not even forget to include the wonderful Cancioneiro Popular Mondinense, allowing us to listen to the words and songs of the people, who, as he himself declares, gave "the soul and the heart." It seems to me that it will not be unreasonable to apply here an earlier eulogy done by Father Ângelo Minhava, another step of this land: "My good friend Dr. António Borges de Castro: (this work) respects not only the Mondinenses, but all Portuguese ! This is the best compliment I can give you. "

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